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Community plays an important role in occupational programs that encompasses the schizophrenic and bipolar clients for independence and improved quality of life. Therefore, client-cantered programs and a community approach are required to restore and enhance the well-being and functioning of the clients Craig, According to World Health Organization WHO schizophrenia is a severe and chronic mental disorder that is characterised by many disruptions in perception, thinking and lack of sense of self and affecting language. On the other hand, bipolar disorder is characterised by depressive and mood episodes that are separated by the periods of normal mood. There are irritable or depressive moods, pressure of speech, over-activity, decreased sleep and inflated self-esteem. These cognitive impairments in memory and executive functioning have direct implications on their quality of life in the social domain that leads to social exclusion and as a result, there is inhibition of occupational engagement. Schizophrenia is a condition that is characterised by failure to distinguish the real and have abnormal social behaviour.

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The currently available treatments for schizophrenia leave much to be desired, and the search for more effective treatments for both the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia e. The first line of treatment for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders is the use of antipsychotic medications. These are drugs that all share a common feature of being a strong block of the D2 type dopamine receptor.

Although these drugs can help reduce hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech, they do little to improve cognitive deficits or negative symptoms and can be associated with distressing motor side effects. These drugs have more mixed mechanisms of action in terms of the receptor types that they influence, though most of them also influence D2 receptors. These newer antipsychotics are not necessarily more helpful for schizophrenia but have fewer motor side effects. Unfortunately, as of yet, there are no pharmacological treatments that work consistently to improve cognition in schizophrenia, although many new types of drugs are currently under

However, there is a type of psychological intervention, referred to as cognitive remediation, that has shown some evidence of helping cognition and Schizophreni A Complex Psychological Disorder in schizophrenia. In particular, a version of this treatment called cognitive enhancement therapy CET has been shown to improve cognition, functional outcome, and social cognition and to protect against gray matter loss Eack et al. The development of new treatments such as cognitive enhancement therapy provides some hope that we will be able to develop new and better approaches to improving the lives of individuals with this serious mental health condition and potentially even prevent it Psycholkgical day.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5th ed. Barch, D.


Cognition in schizophrenia: Core psychological and neural mechanisms. Trends in Cognitive Science, 16 127— Goal representations and motivational drive in schizophrenia: Click role of prefrontal-striatal interactions. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 36 5— Context processing deficit in schizophrenia: Diagnostic specificity, 4-week course, and relationships to clinical symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1— Prefrontal cortex and context processing in medication-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia.

Schizophreni A Complex Psychological Disorder

Schizophrenia Research, 36 1—3— Batstra, L. Diagnostic inflation: Causes and a suggested cure. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 6— Boos, H.

Schizophreni A Complex Psychological Disorder

Brain volumes in relatives of patients with schizophrenia: A meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64 3— Bora, E. Neuroanatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia: A multimodal voxelwise meta- analysis and meta-regression analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 1—346— Theory of mind impairment in schizophrenia: Meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 1—31—9. Bourque, F.]

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